Hybrid Popular Saplings
Introduction to Poplar Tree Farming:-
Poplar tree is one of the popular wood producing trees and this tree is being grown commercially in India since last decade. Poplar trees are grown throughout Asia, North America, Europe and Africa. Poplar tree is deciduous (develop individual male & female flowers) and belongs to the family of Salicaceae. Poplar plants grow at very fast rate and used mainly in wood and paper industry. It is gaining commercial popularity due to its quick growth and use in plywood, sports goods, match-splints, pencils & paper industries. Farmers can expect decent profits under good farming management practices in short time. In India, a poplar tree can grow above 85 feet in height and 36 inches diameter in 5 to 7years
Local names of Poplar Tree in India:-Paras-pipal, Parsipu, Porush (Hindi), Gajashundi, Palaspipal, Poresh (Bengali ), Paraspiplo (Gujarati ), Arasi (Kannada), Cilaanthi, Prapparuththi, Pravaras (Malayalam) , Aashta, Paras-bhendi, Parosapimpal (Marathi), Poovarasam, Portung (Tamil), Ganga Ravi (Telugu).
Major Poplar Production States in India:- Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Western Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal.
Commercially Viable Varieties of Poplar Trees In India:- Suitable clones for agro forestry are Udai, W-22,G-48, A-26, S-7,W-39,W-32,W-101,W-109,W-81 and S-7 C-15 is best suited for clay loamy soils.
Climate Required for Poplar Tree Farming:-
These trees grow mostly in temperate climatic conditions. In India, poplar trees thrive best in areas with temperature between 5°C to 45°C. Frost conditions may not favor the growth of poplar trees. These trees require direct sunlight and enough moisture content in the soil.
Soil Requirement for Poplar Tree Farming:-
Generally, poplar trees grow best on rich loamy soils. However, clay loam, sandy loam soils with well drainage are best suitable for poplar tree farming. The soil pH of 6 to 8.5 is best for its optimum growth and quality. As heavy alkaline and saline soils are not suitable for poplar growth, hence these kinds of soils should be avoided.
Propagation in Poplar Tree Farming:- Poplars tress are propagated through both softwood & hardwood cuttings.
Land Preparation in Poplar Tree Farming:-
Land should be ploughed couple of times to make weed free and fine tilth soil. If you are planning for intercropping as well, then field should be incorporated with well rotten farm yard manure at the time of land preparation.
Seedling Treatment in Poplar Farming:- Young plants should be treated with chemicals and fungicides soon after moving from nursery to main field to prevent any pests and diseases. Damaged roots should be pruned up to 7 cm of main stem before pre treatment and planting.
Seedlings up to 1 meter from roots can be soaked in chloropyriphos (250ml in 100 liters of water) for 10 to 12 minutes to avoid any pest attack. The young plants should be placed in Emisan -6 (200 grams in 100 liters of water) for 20 to 22 minutes to avoid any fungal disease. Once plants are pre-treated, no pruning should be carried out.
Planting and Spacing in Poplar Tree Farming:-
Seedlings transplanted from nursery to main filed should immediately be placed in the storage pits filled with fresh water (2 to 3 days). Prevention of dehydration or moisture loss is up most importance for successful poplar farming.
Planting time is very important in poplar tree cultivation as there may be more than 10% mortality if they are not planted in right time.
Time of Plantation Height of Plants
25th Dec to 15th Jan Above 5 meters.
15th Jan to 15th Feb 4 meters to 5 meters.
15th Feb to 10th Mar 3 meters to 4 meters.
One meter pits should be dug and made with augers having 15 cm diameter. Poplar seedlings are planted straight in the pit & top soil should be filled with the mixture of 2 kg farm yard manure (F.M.Y), 25 grams of MOP and 50 grams of SSP. Don’t fill the upper 10 cm of soil for better watering for their survival.
Spacing Planting Type No.of.Plants/ha
5 m X 5 m With Inter Cropping 455.
5 m X 4 m ” 560.
6 m X 2 m ” 990.
7 m X 2 m ” 907.
8 m X 2 m ” 825.
5 m X 2 m only plantation 1190.
Intercropping in Poplar Tree Farming:- By utilizing the inter space, farmers can make extra income by cultivating intercrops like sugar cane during the first two years of planting. Thereafter, shade loving crops like turmeric and ginger can be cultivated. Avoid intercrops like paddy and bajra.
Manures and Fertilizers in Poplar Tree Farming:-
The following chart shows the manures and fertilizers schedule inpoplar plantation.
Years Month FYM/Plant Urea + SSP/Plant
1st June, July, Aug 8 Kg 50 grams.
2nd June, July, Aug 10 Kg 80 grams.
3rd June, July, Aug 15 Kg 150 grams.
4th Onwards June, July, Aug 15 Kg 200 grams.
Growth Rate in Poplar Tree Farming:-Usually, the girth of poplar trees should be measured at 1.35 meter above the ground level. The growth monitor for poplar tree as follows.
Age (Years) Target (In Inches)
Ist Year 8 – 12.
2nd Year 12 – 16.
3rd Year 16 – 22.
4th Year 22 – 28.
5th Year 28 – 32.
6th Year 32 – 36.
7th Year 36 – 42.
8th Year 42 – 48.
Area of plantation
Each poplar plant needs approximately 20-25 m2 space for its optimum growth. One year old Entire Trans Plants (ETPs) without any co-leader or branches and with naked root (without any ball of earth) are planted in the field from mid-January to February end in pits of size 50cm X 50cm X 100cm. The spacing to be adopted for block plantation is generally 5m X 4m apart (500 plants per hectare ) and for single line or field boundary plantation plant to plant distance is kept at 3m. The plants may be soaked for about 48 hours in running fresh water before planting. To avoid fungal infection, lower one meter of the poplar transplant should be dipped in 0.15 percent solution of Emissan-6 for about 20 minutes and for termite protection for 10 minutes in 0.25 percent Aldrix solution or alternatively for protection against termites about 400g of deoiledneem cake can be mixed with soil to be refilled in pits.
Planting should preferably be done by two men so that one man holds the plant in erect position and the other fills the pit and compacts the earth around it. After planting, the pits should be filled with top soil and FYM in a ratio of 1 : 1 mixed with 10-20g BHC and 50g P2O5. Proper compacting of the soil and immediate irrigation after plantation enhances the chances of survival of the plants. First year casualities should be beaten up with sturdy ETPs not less than 5 m tall in January-February of the following year. After that no beating up should be done as the new plants are not able to catch up with rest of the plants.
Use a Lombardy poplar as a screen or as a wind-breaker–plant multiple trees in a series. Use white poplars as a shade tree or a specimen tree to attract attention, as their size makes them more suitable for this function. Choose a Simon poplar, which hails from China, as an ornamental. At about 40 feet, it will not overwhelm an area. Plant Eastern cottonwoods if you have a large open landscape that includes a pond or stream. Place the trees close to the water.
Some well-known varieties of poplar trees include the white poplar (Populusalba), willow-leaved poplar (Populusangustifolia), laurel-leaf poplar (Populuslaurifolia), Wilson’s poplar (Populuswilsonii), Mexico poplar (Populus Mexicana), Yunnan poplar (Populusyunnanensis) and Simon’s poplar (Populussimonii).
The Poplar’s eye-pleasing blossoms are an attractive part of the tree; however, its bark and branches are what really make it a hot commodity. The Poplar’s exceptionally flexible wood is used in a variety of different ways to construct:
- Electric guitars
In addition, since the 1970s, the Poplar has been used as an energy crop for biofuel systems thanks in large part to its fast growth and large carbon mitigation potential.
Where the Poplar Grows
Poplar Tree in Full Sunlight Poplar trees grow best in climates with mild winters and warm summers. While the Poplar can be found in parts of Asia and Europe, the trees are mainly centralized in southern states, such as:
- South Carolina
The southern portion of the United States makes for an ideal habitat for the Poplar tree because of the region’s moist ground. Poplar trees thrive in soil found along riverbeds. In addition, due to their large size, Poplar trees need space to spread out and do not grow well in compact areas where they have a difficult time absorbing nutrients.
|Poplar Tree Buds||Poplar Tree Flowers||Poplar Tree in Fall|
Poplar Tree Types
White Poplar Bark
There are more than 35 species of Poplar trees around the world. However, the most popular types are found in North America:
- White Poplar:This massive Poplar grows up to 100 feet tall and its leaf canopy can spread up to 60 feet wide. The tree thrives in southern states, such as Georgia and South Carolina, where it can bask in warm temperatures. Unlike some of its cousins, the White Poplar has a high drought tolerance and can easily grow in different types of soil and climate conditions. It is known for its large dark green leaves and may have diamond-shaped marks in the bark.
- Lombardy Poplar:The Lombardy Poplar has a highly distinctive diamond shape. Its bark is long and column-like while its branches extend upward rather than outward from the trunk. The unique growth pattern gives the Poplar the shape of an elongated pyramid.
- Eastern Poplar:This extra-large Poplar is also known as the Eastern Cottonwood. It can exceed heights of 100 feet with a trunk size of four feet in diameter. Its leaves are also big and feature serrated edges. Due to its impressive size and need for sunlight, the eastern Poplar is used primarily for shade in large recreational areas.
- Balsam Poplar:Found throughout the northern portion of the United States, the Balsam Poplar, also known as Black Cottonwood, thrives in swampy soil. It features aromatic fruit clusters that house dozens of seeds.